FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is a highly flexible integrated circuit that can be programmed to implement a variety of digital functions. Implementing a single bus protocol in FPGA can effectively simplify communication between modules. The single bus protocol means that all devices or modules share a communication line (bus), which can reduce the complexity and cost of hardware connections.

  1. Overview of single bus protocol

The single bus protocol is a shared bus communication method. The main feature is that all devices share a communication line. Usually, a single bus system includes a master module (Master) and one or more slave modules (Slave). The master control module is responsible for initializing communication and controlling data transmission, while the slave modules respond to the master control module's requests after receiving instructions.

  1. Common single bus protocols

In FPGA design, common single bus protocols include I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit), SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and 1-Wire protocol. Each protocol has its specific application scenarios, advantages and disadvantages.

I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit)

I2C is a two-wire serial communication protocol invented by Philips. The I2C protocol uses two lines for communication: a data line (SDA) and a clock line (SCL).


lSimple two-wire design reduces hardware connections.

lSupports multiple masters and multiple slave devices.

lWidely used in sensors and low-speed peripherals.

Implementation: The I2C protocol is usually implemented in FPGA through Verilog or VHDL, including master control module and slave module. The main control module is responsible for generating clock signals and controlling data transmission. The slave modules receive and send data synchronously according to the clock signal of the main control module.

SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface)

SPI is a synchronous serial communication protocol commonly used for high-speed data transmission. SPI uses four lines: data in (MISO), data out (MOSI), clock (SCLK), and slave select (SS).


lHigh-speed data transmission.

lFull-duplex communication (simultaneous data sending and receiving).

lHardware implementation is simple.

Implementation: To implement the SPI protocol in FPGA, you need to design the master control module and slave module. The master control module generates a clock signal and controls the slave selection line, and the slave module synchronizes data transmission according to the selection line and clock signal.

1-Wire protocol

The 1-Wire protocol was developed by Dallas Semiconductor (now Maxim Integrated). It is a single-wire communication protocol mainly used for low-speed devices.


lOnly one data line is needed, saving hardware resources.

Simple bus structure, suitable for simple sensors and identification devices.

Implementation: To implement the 1-Wire protocol in FPGA, you need to design a main control module to conduct all communications through a single data line. The implementation of the protocol involves bus multiplexing, timing control and the sending and receiving of data frames.

  1. Design and implementation

Implementing a single bus protocol in FPGA usually includes the following steps:

Define interface signals

Define the interface signals related to the protocol, such as I2C's SDA and SCL signals, SPI's MISO, MOSI, SCLK and SS signals, and 1-Wire's single-wire signals.

Write HDL code

Use Verilog or VHDL to code the master and slave modules. The timing, data frame format, and state machine of the protocol need to be described in detail.

Bus arbitration and conflict detection

If the protocol supports multiple masters, bus arbitration and conflict detection mechanisms need to be implemented. For example, the I2C protocol implements multi-master arbitration by detecting the idle state of the bus.

Testing and verification

Verify design correctness through simulation tools and actual hardware testing. Functional testing, timing analysis, and performance evaluation are required to ensure the protocol works as expected.

  1. Sample code

The following is an example of Verilog code for a simple I2C master control module:

  1. Summary

Single-bus protocol design in FPGA involves defining interface signals, writing HDL code, implementing bus arbitration and conflict detection mechanisms, and verifying the correctness of the design through simulation and actual hardware testing. The implementation of single-bus protocols in FPGAs provides an effective way to simplify design and reduce hardware costs, but it also brings a variety of design challenges. Through continuous technological innovation and optimization, the flexibility of FPGA can be better utilized to meet increasingly complex application requirements.