GIS is a technology that combines geographic data with software to capture, manage, and analyze information on the earth's surface. It allows us to integrate data onto a map to understand the relationship between different location information. GIS integrates different spatial data, such as satellite images, geographical coordinates and other information.

How does GIS work?

  1. Collect data

Collecting data is a critical step in the process of building a GIS. For GIS to work effectively, it needs to have accurate and up-to-date data. We can use satellites, aircraft, drones to capture images and collect data about the earth's surface, including aerial photos, satellite images, ranging data. Another method is through ground surveys, with field technicians using GPS devices or RTK survey tools to collect the key information needed.

  1. Manage and transform data

Managing and converting data is also a key step in the GIS process. When we obtain key data, we need to manage and analyze the data, and at the same time, we need to convert the data into a data format that can be recognized and processed by GIS software. By effectively managing and transforming data, GIS users can improve data quality and analytical data availability.

  1. Analysis and visualization processing

Analyzing and visualizing data is a key step in any GIS project. After we obtain and manage the data, we can analyze the data. We can analyze data for spatial patterns, relationships, and trends. By using various analysis tools and techniques, we can discover key information such as time, space, and location hidden in the data. After analyzing the data, it can help us make decisions in land planning and resource allocation. Visualization is equally important. We can effectively convey complex geospatial information through maps, charts, or graphics generated by GIS software. By visually presenting the data, we can enhance our understanding of the data.

  1. Decision making

After we determine the geographical location information, geographical changes, and spatial relationships through GIS, we can use these data to handle related matters. For example, in our urban planning, GIS can help us identify which areas are more prone to natural disasters, and we can take corresponding measures according to different types of disasters to reduce the harm caused by natural disasters.

Key elements that make up GIS:

  1. Hardware

GIS hardware refers to the physical components necessary for GIS operation, including computers, servers, GPS receivers, scanners, printers and other equipment. These hardware components are critical for collecting, storing, processing, and analyzing spatial data. These hardware components enable GIS users to quickly access accurate geographic data for decision-making, while ensuring the smooth running and efficient execution of tasks in GIS projects.

  1. Software

GIS software plays a vital role in various applications. These software programs are designed to process and analyze spatial data, allowing users to create maps, perform geospatial analysis, and display data in the form of charts, reducing manual data processing time and improving work efficiency.

  1. Data

GIS data refers to information used within geographic information systems. This includes spatial data, vector data, triangulated irregular network (TIN) data, raster data, tabular data, and more.

  1. Technology

GIS technology refers to the technology used in GIS to collect, organize, analyze and visualize spatial data. These technologies help to use GIS technology for various applications.

Application scenarios of geographic information systems

  1. Urban planning

In urban planning, we can visualize spatial location information by integrating various spatial data into the GIS platform, helping us optimize land allocation and optimize the construction of livelihood projects.

  1. Disaster Management

GIS provides information to effectively respond to and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. During natural disasters such as storms, earthquakes, or floods, GIS helps identify hazardous areas and assess their potential risks. Emergency responders can develop evacuation plans, effectively allocate resources, and coordinate rescue operations.


In navigation systems, GIS can provide accurate and real-time location information. By integrating GPS data with GIS technology, navigation applications can provide users with lane-level navigation and real-time optimized route information based on current traffic conditions.