LoRaWAN is now a very popular LPWA communication standard that uses unlicensed radio spectrum in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band, with frequencies around 900MHz to 430MHz (standards vary around the world).

IoT connection environment In addition to smart home networking and office space scenarios, many IoT device connection communications will be conducted in a remote environment. In the new environment, due to the limitation of M2M transmission coverage, this will result in inaccessibility and the need for power connection. In view of this, the widespread adoption of LPWA solutions - LoRAWAN™ and the open standards of 3GPP (LTE Cat M1 and Cat NB1) will specifically provide optimal solution support for these obstacles encountered in the IoT connection process.

Definition of LoRa™ and LoRaWAN™
LoRaWAN™ is a popular and widely deployed LPWA communications standard that uses unlicensed radio spectrum in the ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band at approximately 900MHz or 430Mhz (the exact frequency varies around the world). Using unlicensed spectrum means companies can easily roll out networks and provide private networks to businesses. LoRaWAN defines the network's communication protocol and system architecture, while LoRa™ describes the radio layer. LoRa uses Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) modulation, which is both energy efficient and provides longer range than traditional alternatives. CSS has been used in military and space communications for decades due to its range and robustness to interference, but LoRa is the first low-cost implementation available for commercial use.

LoRa networks have a star topology where hundreds or thousands of devices communicate bi-directionally with a gateway connected to the core network and ultimately the Internet. Signals from a single sensor or device are received by all gateways within range, which increases reliability and opens up the possibility of location services. The network uses sophisticated "adaptive data rate" algorithms to fine-tune communications between each device and gateway to minimize power consumption and maximize reliability.

What are the benefits of choosing LoRaWAN technology?
Coverage With CSS and ADR, devices can communicate with gateways up to 15 kilometers in open areas and up to 5 kilometers in cities, meaning a single gateway can cover all areas around 700 square kilometers equipment. Coverage also extends indoors to service ducts in basements or below street level.

1. Low power consumption and service life

Low power consumption and low peak current requirements, LoRaWAN data transmission and reception require low current (less than 50 mA), which greatly reduces the power consumption of the device. A single charge can make the device have a service life of up to ten years, greatly reducing the support and Maintenance costs.

2. Save costs

Wide coverage and relatively low gateway costs significantly reduce the cost of LoRaWAN network deployment. For devices, communication modules are priced in the $10 range, and unlicensed spectrum means connectivity costs as little as $1/year.

3. Positioning service

Since signals from a specific device can be received by multiple gateways, the device's location can be calculated based on the signal strength and/or signal arrival time at each base station, enabling network-based location-based services that can be used to track or profile the device. Geofencing.

4. Deep penetration

LoRa radio modulation allows for deep indoor penetration and increases the ability to reach sensors at water or gas meters located underground.

5. No need to obtain any frequency license

The LoRaWAN network is deployed on the free ISM frequency band (EU 868, AS 923, US 915 Mhz), allowing any service provider or company to deploy and operate a LoRaWAN network without obtaining a license for any frequency.

6. Quick construction and commercial use

The combination of the LoRaWAN open standard with no-cost operating frequencies and low-cost base stations enables operators to launch networks in just a few months with minimal investment. Bi-directional communication Fully bi-directional communication supports a variety of use cases requiring both uplink and downlink: for example, street lighting, smart irrigation, energy optimization or home automation.

7. One-stop management

The LoRaWAN network supports multiple vertical solutions, allowing service providers to use one platform and standards to manage various use cases such as smart buildings, precision agriculture, smart metering or smart cities.

The difference between LoRaWAN and 3GPP technology
For many requirements, LPWAN requires lowest cost and lowest power. In real use cases (around 20 messages/day), the power consumption of LoRAWAN gateway is 5 times better than LTE Cat NB1. The peak current required is reduced by a factor of 10 - equivalent to an order of magnitude reduction in battery size and a ten-year increase in service life.

Another major difference between LoRaWAN and 3GPP is the use of unlicensed spectrum. LoRaWAN allows the easy deployment of "campus" networks (smart cities, smart buildings, smart airports, smart factories) with thousands of devices in a small area. The enterprise network can be completely under the control of the customer, and data remains end-to-end encrypted.

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